Early settlers in Canada had a rifle in hand. It was essential for survival and also used as a recreational pastime. Today, many rifle events are available all across Canada and around the world.
Rifle events have been present at every summer Olympic Games since the birth of the modern Olympic movement (1896) with the exception of 1904 and 1928.
For more detailed information you can go to the Wikipedia page on Shooting Sports.
Some examples of non-Olympic events that utilize rifles:
These events fall under the rules of the ISSF.